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more Planting Guidelines

When your plant arrives, remove it from the shipping box immediately. If it is a container plant, discard any packing material clinging to the leaves or soil, then water it thoroughly, until water runs out of the holes at the bottom of the pot. Placing the container(s) in a shady, protected area for at least 3 days will allow the plant to acclimate to your area prior to transplanting. If you cannot plant it within a few days of receiving it, make sure the plant stays well watered.

If it is a bareroot plant (which means no soil around the roots and usually no leaves), inspect the plant to make sure it is moist but not soggy. If it seems dry, add just enough water to moisten. Leave the plant in its packing material until you are ready to plant it in the ground. Put it in a cool, protected area, and always keep the roots from drying out. Plant bareroots as soon as possible.

When you are ready to plant it, do the job as early in the day as possible. Overcast, slightly cool weather is ideal, but you can always add some temporary shade if the sun is hot. Even sun-loving plants appreciate a little shade their first few days in the ground.

Good soil quality and aeration are critical to your plant's success. Give its roots plenty of room to spread by digging the planting hole 3 to 4 times larger than the pot your plant arrives in, and at least 1 1/2 times deeper. While the soil is upturned, take the opportunity to amend it with compost or other organics. The better your soil, the faster and more successfully many plants will establish and grow.

2. Muddy-in to keep roots moist 
No matter how moist the soil around the plant looks, most will benefit from ''muddying in'' the first few days in the garden. To do this, build a thin, circular wall of soil an inch or two high and just a bit wider than the hole you have dug for your new plant. Fill the inside of the circle with water all the way to the top, refilling as necessary for 2 to 3 days to keep the area muddy. Some plants suffer transplant shock, during which their roots cannot take up water from the soil. Muddying them in ensures that the roots remain drenched with water throughout those first critical days after transplant. If your plant looks wilted after 2 or 3 days of muddying in, try putting some shade over it for a few days and continue the muddying in. This will slow down the loss of water and give your plant a chance to rest and adjust to its new surroundings.

3. Feed your plant regularly 
If you plant in spring, your soil will need amendments regardless of how rich and fertile it appears at planting time. Plants use resources from the soil very quickly, and without a steady diet of organics and fertilizer, they cannot grow their best. At planting time, work compost and other organics into the planting hole, as described in step 2. A week or two after planting, when your plant is settled into its new home, begin a regular program of organic feeding, or a slow-release fertilizer that can be worked into the soil for use throughout the season. If you plant in fall, wait until spring to begin feeding your plant. The soil can be amended with organics at planting time, but you do not want to encourage too much new growth before winter, lest frost kills the tender new shoots.

4. Give your plant an inch of water a week
The rule of thumb for watering most garden plants, especially during their first year in a new location, is an inch of water a week. This means that a rain gauge placed next to your plant for a week should collect about an inch of water from all sources (rainfall, sprinkling, drip irrigation, etc.) Unless your soil drainage is very poor, too much water is not as much of a problem as too little. Spring rains take care of plants during the first few months in most climates, but once the summer heat sets in, pay close attention to the amount of water your plant receives. Wind is also a factor when watering plants. Even if you use a drip-hose to minimize water loss in the air, wind dries the foliage of plants very quickly, requiring them to take up much more water from the soil than they would otherwise need. Check the moisture level of your soil periodically by sinking your index finger up to the second knuckle in the soil beside your plant. If it is dry, your plant needs more water. Remember that plants in containers need much more water than those in garden soil. It is not unusual to water container plants heavily once or even twice a day during the hottest summer weather. The best time to water is early in the morning, before the sun is high. If you live in a humid climate, watering at this time lets the sun evaporate the standing water from the foliage of your plants, preventing mildew. And in all climates, you will lose less water to the sun's rays by applying it early in the day. If you plant in fall, remember that your plant still needs water until the ground is frozen. Even on cold days, water new plants regularly.

5. Mulch to save water, suppress weeds, and protect your plant
Mulch is any material added to the top of the soil around your plants. It may be organic, such as straw, pine needles, grass clippings, leaves, compost, bark, or even sawdust. Or it may be inorganic: row covers, small rocks, ground-up tires, etc. Whatever type of mulch you apply, make sure that it is at least a few inches deep, and that it does not touch the stems of your plant. Mulch is important to the soil and to the health of your plant. It prevents water loss, which saves you money and keeps your plant better watered. It chokes out weeds, reducing the amount of time you need to spend on this tedious garden chore. It prevents the erosion of nutrients from the soil during heavy rains and winds. And most importantly, it protects the health of your plant by keeping the soil temperature fairly constant during fluctuations in temperature. Reapply mulch as the seasons change, preparing your plant for new air temperatures.

6. Find the best location for your plant
When we choose a plant for the garden, we usually know just the spot we want it in. Often this works perfectly, but sometimes it does not. A sun-loving plant that likes to dry out a bit between watering, for instance, will never be happy in the partly-shaded corner of the border near the dripping spigot. Even locations that appear tailor-made for a certain plant may not work out. Watch your plant carefully the first season to see how well it is adjusting to its new home, and do not hesitate to move it if it appears unhappy. It is much easier to find the perfect environment for a plant than to try to compensate for less-than-perfect surroundings throughout the life of your plant.

7. Build better soil, season after season
Adding amendments such as humus or compost at planting time is critical, but nutrients leave the soil over time, and need constant replenishment. Nearly all plants grow better in soil that retains moisture, drains well, and is fairly fertile. Work on the garden soil over time, and plants will grow to their fullest potential. First, know the soil. If you are not sure what kind of soil is in your garden, begin with a test from your local Co-operative Extension Service (http://www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/ ). This test is very inexpensive, and will tell you a lot about the native soil in your garden. If you have heavy clay soil, you need to add organics that make the soil ''lighter,'' so that air circulates better and water drains more freely through it. Composted leaves and vegetables make excellent amendments, as do aged manure from farm animals; peat; vermiculite; and/or gypsum, plus a little sand. The ideal mix would be 40% to 50% organic matter, 10% sand, and 40 to 50% clay, mixed evenly together into a crumbly brown mass that holds moisture but is not soggy when you squeeze it. If you have sandy soil, you need to add matter that will provide more nutrients and help the soil hold moisture. Apply compost and organic matter as described above in the same ratio, plus 10% clay instead of sand.

Then adds lots of organic matter at every opportunity

Once you know the type of soil you have, you cannot go wrong by adding organics of the type described above frequently and heavily. Every time you prepare to replant annual and vegetable beds, work in as much organic matter as you have on hand. When you weed the perennial and shrub borders, work organic material into the soil after pulling out the ''volunteers.'' When you reapply mulch before each change of season, apply organics beneath the new covering of mulch. With each watering the organic matter will sink into the soil, spreading its nutrients down to your plants' roots. Over time, your soil will be rich, well-aerated, and easy to work with. 
These are general guidelines, therefore the care instructions for each plant may differ plant information contained in this manual. But if you follow these rules-of-thumb, chances are your plants will grow their very best, repaying your effort many times over in beauty and an increasing investment in your property. If there is anything we can do to enhance your experience, please let us know. Enjoy your garden, and thank you for letting us be a part of it!


ACONITUM species and cultivars : Monkshood

PLANTING: Most of the lore surrounding aconitum surrounds its poisonous properties : monkshood requires caution as all its parts are toxic. Set plants 12 to 15 inches apart. They like partial shade in areas with hot summers and intense sunlight; otherwise, full sun is best. The crowns should be set 2 inches deep. A rich, moisture retentive (but well-drained) soil is best; we recommend a mulch as well, to conserve moisture and promote optimum growth. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well watered, especially during periods of drought. Divide every three years to promote vigor and heavy bloom; otherwise, plants do not like to be moved. Removing spent flowering stems after blooming season will also encourage heavier bloom. Zones 3-8. Prune for aesthetics and to keep in bounds. Zones 4-9

AEGOPODIUM podagraria 'Variegata' : Silveredge, Bishop's Weed, Goutweed
PLANTING: Set out plants 15 to 18 inches apart, bearing in mind that each plant will spread up to 36 inches in two years. Don't worry about soil, sun or moisture; Aegopodium will grow almost anywhere, making it the perfect choice for difficult patches where other plants have failed. 
MAINTENANCE: In northern areas, we recommend a winter mulch for the first few years, until plants are fully established. Otherwise, no special care is needed. Zones 3-9

AGAVE-species
PLANTING: Agaves will do well in a wide variety of soils as long as the soil is well drained. They will not survive in wet soil. Full sun or light shade is ideal. 
MAINTENANCE: Very little water is needed by these plants in the winter. Established plants will benefit from a monthly application of a dilute water soluble fertilizer. Zones various.

AJUGA- Bugleweed
PLANTING: Set out plants in the spring, 12 inches apart in part shade/sun. That the soil be well-drained is Ajuga's most important requirement; if necessary, add compost and coarse sand to heavy soils to lighten and improve drainage. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moderately moist, watering to a depth of 6 inches during periods of drought. Mulch in winter without covering the tops of the plants: this will prevent damage to the shallow roots from alternate freezes and thaws. Zones 4-10.

AQUILEGIA hybrids : Columbine
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 15 inches apart. Choose a soil that's fertile and well-drained, but moisture-retentive. In the cooler regions of the north, full sun is fine, so long as plants receive ample moisture. Farther south, partial shade is preferred. 
MAINTENANCE: Water well during periods of drought. To prevent interbreeding, remove seed pods when they appear. If foliage becomes unattractive by summer cut it back to ground level; it will regrow in a very short period of time to continue its delicate display until frost. Zones 3-9.

ARACHNIODES : See Ferns

ARUNCUS : Goat's Beard
PLANTING: Set out A. dioicus 20 to 24 inches apart; A. aethusfolius 6 inches apart. Choose a moisture-retentive soil that contains plenty of rich humus, and a shady location. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Remove spent flower heads : otherwise, little or no 
MAINTENANCE is required. Divide as needed. Zones 4-8.

ASCLEPIAS tuberosa
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 15 inches apart. Choose a sunny location where the soil, which need not be particularly fertile, is well-drained. Plant the crown 2 to 4 inches deep. 
MAINTENANCE: Asclepias is late to break dormancy in the spring, so take care not to remove it accidentally during cultivation. Because of its extensive taproot (which helps account for its drought-tolerance), avoid disturbing established plants. Newly set out plants may benefit from a winter mulch; otherwise no special care is needed. Zones 3-9.

ASTER species : Hardy Aster
PLANTING: Set A. x frikartii 15 to 18 inches apart, others 18 to 24 inches apart in sun. A. frikartii will also grow in light shade and has an exceptionally long blooming period that starts in summer. In general, asters prefer fertile soil, but will tolerate poorer soils as well. Soil should also be well-drained, but take care to provide ample moisture, particularly in fall when plants are in bloom. 
MAINTENANCE: Pinch or even shear back several times during the early part of the growing season to promote vigorous, compact growth. Divide every 3 years or as necessary, replanting the younger, more vigorous pieces from the outside of the clump. To control mildew naturally, avoid overhead watering, and plant away from hedges or fences to assure satisfactory air flow. If you must, a monthly spray with wettable sulfur will insure mildew control.

ASTILBE : Meadow Sweet
PLANTING: Set out plants in spring or fall, 15 to 18 inches apart. Astilbes prefer partial to full shade, but may be grown in sun in northern areas if particular attention is paid to maintaining a constant supply of moisture, especially early in the growing season. (Failure to do this will produce poor, chlorotic, unattractive foliage.) A soil well-enriched with organic matter is essential. 
MAINTENANCE: Astilbes are vulnerable to drought, and should be watered liberally; year-round mulch will help retain moisture and moderate soil temperature. Other than that, and dividing established plants every few years, preferably in the fall, they are relatively care-free. Their plumy inflorescences, even when dry, provide winter interest, so we suggest that they not be cut back until spring, prior to the onset of new growth. Zones various.

ASTRANTIA major- Musterwort
PLANTING: Performs best in light shade and an evenly moist, rich well drained soil. In cool summer areas, it can be grown in full sun as long as the soil remains moist; if grown in a hot region, part shade is imperative. Space 16 inches apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Remove the spent flowerheads to prevent them from going to seed. Divide as needed by digging plants in fall or early spring. In hotter areas, divide in fall. Zones 4-7.

ATHYRIUM : See Ferns, Hardy

AUBRIETA
PLANTING: Plant in sandy, well drained soil that contains lots of organic matter such as compost, peat moss, etc.Avoid clay or soils that stay wet for long periods of time. Plant in sun or in warmer areas provide some shade druing the hotest part of the day. 
MAINTENANCE: Shear plnats as the blooming season ends and apply a complete fertilzier in early spring to stimulate new growth and flowering. In colder climates a winter cover of branches or evergreens is helpful. Zones 5-8.

BAPTISIA species
PLANTING: Set plants about 3 feet apart, in full sun and in a well-drained loamy soil. Choose your location carefully, as established plants put out extensive root systems and do not like to be moved. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well-watered until established, after which time they are quite drought resistant. To dry the seedpods, cut them early in the fall before they become weathered and wrinkled. Keep them right side up in a dry, airy location until ready to use. Zones 3-8.

BAPTISIA sphaerocarpa : Yellow Wild Indigo
PLANTING: Set plants 2 to 3 feet apart in full sun. They tolerate poor soils and thrive on clay hardpan, unlike most other perennials, so avoid overly rich conditions. 
MAINTENANCE: No fertilizer is needed. Keep plants well-watered until established, after which they will be quite drought resistant. Established plants develop a deep root system and do not like to be moved. Zones 4-8.

BERGENIA species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants 10 to 12 inches apart. Bergenia is tolerant of many soil types, succeeding in sun or shade, but will do best in a shady spot in a rich, cool, moisture retentive soil. (Best winter foliage color, however, is achieved in a sunnier location.) When planting, set crown and their woody rhizomes only slightly below the soils surface. 
MAINTENANCE: Berginias require virtually no upkeep. They spread by thick stoloniferous roots, and are easily removed from places where they are not wanted. If slugs turn out to be a problem, use a slug bait. Zones 4-9.

BLECHNUM : See Ferns

BRUNNERA macrophylla : Perennial Forget-Me-Not
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart. Choose a location in partial shade, although full sun will be tolerated in cooler northern zones. In warmer southern zones, plants perform well even in dense shade. The soil should be deep and moisture-retentive, but welldrained.
MAINTENANCE: Water plants during periods of drought. Plants may be divided, for rejuvenation, every 2 or 3 years. Zones 3-8.

BUDDLEIA, Butterfly Bush, Summer Lilac
PLANTING: Buddleia, as long they receive full sun, will adapt easily to almost any good garden soil, but prepare soil thoroughly before. Plant at least 6 to 8 feet apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during long, hot, dry spells to prolong the growing season. In the northern areas, buddleias tend to die back to or near to the ground over the winter. Even in areas where they do not die back, they should be cut back hard in the fall in northern zones to prevent snow damage and in early spring to encourage vigorous new growth in southern zones. They break dormancy late in the spring, but with the onset of warm weather will grow rapidly and without attention. Do not overfeed. Zones 5-9.

CALAMAGROSTIS : See Grasses, Ornamental

CAMPANULA : Bellflower
PLANTING: Set plants 1 to 2 feet apart, depending on the ultimate size of the species. Plant in fertile, well-drained, but moisture-retentive soil, high in organic matter. Campanula will thrive in sun or partial shade. 
MAINTENANCE: A light winter mulch is beneficial. Taller species or cultivars may require staking. A balanced fertilizer, applied each spring, will promote lush growth, and removal of spent flowers will promote additional flower production. Zones 3-9

CAREX species : Sedge
PLANTING: Plant 18 inches apart in any good garden soil, in part shade. In the North, they can be grown in full sun. In the South, most prefer some shade. Most members of the genus need a moist soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Divide in spring if it has become overcrowded. Otherwise, little or no maintenance is required. If the foliage looks poor and bedraggled after the winter, which is often the case in the North, cut it back hard in early spring and allow the new growth to come up afresh. Zones Various

CENTAUREA species
PLANTING: These plants must have well drained soil and do best in full sun. Space plants 12-18 inches apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought and apply a complete fertilizer in early spring. Plants may be divided every 2-4 years. Zones 4-8.

CERATOSTIGMA plumbaginoides (Plumbago larpentae) Leadwort
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart. Ceratostigma will grow virtually anywhere, in good soil or poor, in sun (preferable farther north) or shade, heat or cold. 
MAINTENANCE: We recommend a light winter mulch. As plants spread rapidly, frequent dividing may be necessary; this is best done in spring. Zones 5-9

CHRYSANTHEMUM coccineum : Pyrethrum, Painted Daisy
PLANTING: Set plants 18 inches apart, in full sun to part shade in a rich, well-drained soil. Good drainage is essential; plants may rot in too wet a soil. For best effect, plant in groups of 3 or more. 
MAINTENANCE: Remove faded flowers. A winter mulch is beneficial. Divide every 3 or 4 years in spring or fall to prevent overcrowding. Zones 5-9.

CHRYSANTHEMUM maximum : Shasta Daisy (Leucanthemum) 
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart. Choose a sunny location, where the soil is deep and rich. 
MAINTENANCE: Attention to deadheading will extend the blooming season. We recommend an annual application of a balanced fertilizer, applied each spring before growth begins. Plants should be lifted and divided as needed to assure vigor. Zones various.

CHRYSOGONUM virginianum : Golden Star
PLANTING: Plant 12 inches apart in sun or light shade, preferably in a rich, moistureretentive yet well-drained soil enriched with compost or leaf mold. 
MAINTENANCE: Water well during periods of drought. Divide plants to rejuvenate if necessary. Zones 5-9.

CIMICIFUGA species : Bugbane, Snakeroot
PLANTING: Set plants 18 to 24 inches apart. Choose a cool location in partial to full shade : the farther south, the more shade is advised. It is essential that the soil be moisture-retentive and rich in organic matter. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants watered during periods of drought. We recommend a winter mulch in the northern portions of the range. To increase plants, divide in spring or fall. Zones 3-9.

CLEMATIS species and cultivars
PLANTING: We have found that bare-root Clematis are easier to ship, transplant better, and begin growth quicker than potted Clematis. Set out plants immediately upon receipt spacing widely to allow for ultimate growth and spread. A rich, loose, well-drained soil that has been enriched is ideal; soil should be porous to allow for free run of the roots. The rule of thumb is that clematis prefer shade at the roots (this can be provided by low growing plants or a cooling mulch), and sun at the tops. For this reason they do well interplanted among trees and shrubs, through which they easily grow. Dig a hole one foot wide by one foot deep, large enough to allow for ample root growth. Form a cone in the bottom of hole with a mixture of well amended soil, and a cup of lime in acidic soils. Position the plant so that the stem is 2 inches below the soil line and spread the roots over the soil area. Fill in the hole, firm well, and set a stake next to the plant for support. Water freely to drive out air pockets and promote good root to soil contact. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Do not be discouraged if top growth is slow to appear; the roots must establish themselves before top growth occurs. For pruning purposes, Clematis can be divided into 3 groups. The first group blooms in the spring from buds set the previous season. Prune, when needed, after bloom. The second group blooms in early summer on short stems that come from buds set the previous season. In March, remove dead wood and cut the remaining stems back to a pair of strong buds. The third group blooms on new growth. Therefore, prune all stems back to 12 inches from the ground each year in March. We also recommend a winter mulch. They also respond well to a top-dressing of well aged manure or rich compost, preferably applied twice a year. Zones various.

CONVALLARIA majalis : Lily-of-the-Valley
PLANTING: Plant 6 inches apart, covering the ''pips'' or crowns to a depth of 1-inch and setting them firmly in the soil. A moist soil, but not a heavy clay or one with standing water, is ideal. Best results are obtained in partial to nearly full shade, but Convallaria will succeed in sun, as long as provided adequate moisture. 
MAINTENANCE: Annual top dressings of rotted manure, compost or leaf mold, applied in the fall, will make for more vigorous growth and heavier flower production. Can be transplanted by lifting square sods containing a number of plants, or divided singly, primarily to establish new beds. Otherwise little care is required. Zones 3-7.

CORYDALLIS species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants out 15-18 inches apart in alkaline, well drained moisture retentive soil. Light shade is ideal, with morning sun and afternoon shade. Good air circulation is a great advantage. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during dry periods while plant is actively growing. Remove spent flowers to stimulate continued bloom. Division can be done in either spring or fall. Be careful not to dig up or plant on top while the plant is dormant. Zones 4-8

COREOPSIS species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants 10 to 12 inches apart, or more for larger cultivars. Choose a location in full sun or very light shade; any reasonable soil, so long as it is well-drained, will do. 
MAINTENANCE: Periodically removing spent flowers will lengthen the blooming season. We recommend a mulch of humus or compost. Dividing every 2 or 3 years as necessary will induce stronger growth. Otherwise, plants are pest- and disease-free, requiring no special care. Zones various.

CORTADERIA : See Grasses

COTONEASTER species
PLANTING: Space plants to allow for the ultimate growth of the species you've chosen. Widely tolerant of soil types (including alkaline soils) so long as drainage is good. Cotoneaster will do best in full sun in the North, and in partial shade in the South. 
MAINTENANCE: Prune to shape as needed; any such pruning should be done in late winter or early spring. Zones 5-9

DAYLILY : See Hemerocallis

DELOSPERMA cooperi : Iceplant
PLANTING: Plant in a sunny location in a light, very well-drained soil, 12 to 15 inches apart. Very drought tolerant. 
MAINTENANCE: Once established, cut back the untidy growth each spring to encourage new growth. Easily propagated from cuttings. Zones 6-9.

DELOSPERMA floribundum : Hardy Ice Plant
PLANTING: Space plants 12 inches apart in full sun in a light, very well drained soil. Drought tolerant and easy to grow. 
MAINTENANCE: Cut back untidy plants each spring to encourage new growth. Easily propagated from cuttings. Zones 4-9.

DELPHINIUM hybrids
PLANTING: Set plants 18 to 24 inches apart. Cool conditions will encourage spikes to attain their maximum size; and choose a location in full sun, with a humus-rich, well-drained but moisture-retentive soil (ideally of neutral to slight alkaline reaction). Good drainage is essential; lighten soil with sand and compost, if necessary. Crowns should be placed 1 to 2 inches below the surface of the soil; deeper planting might lead to crown rot. 
MAINTENANCE: Delphiniums should be fed liberally with manure or a recommended fertilizer. After initial blooming, cut back blooming stalks to 6 inches above ground to promote a second bloom. Leaves must not be removed. Taller varieties, especially if exposed to wind, may require staking. We recommend winter mulch. To promote larger flowers and greater numbers, remove all but 5 young shoots, early in the season when they are 4 to 6 inches high. It is important to stake tall growing varieties and this is best done early in the season. Zones 3-7 (but can be treated as a hardy spring annual in Zones 8-10).

DENDRATHEMA -See Chrysanthemum

DIANTHUS species and cultivars : Carnation, Pinks
PLANTING: Set plants 6 to 10 inches apart. Choose a sunny location. The ideal soil is gritty, with a substantial lime content, and well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: If plants become too open or loose in the center, they can be trimmed back to the bushy central growth after flowering. Deadheading will, in any case, enhance plants' attractiveness : and many lengthen blooming period. We recommend winter mulch. Zones various.

DICENTRA species and cultivars : Bleeding Heart
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 24 inches apart, depending on species. Choose a shady or partly shaded location, where the soil is rich, humusy and well-drained. D. x ' Luxuriant' can be grown in full sun. 
MAINTENANCE: Plants should be watered during periods of drought. We recommend a summer mulch to help conserve moisture, as well as a protective mulch in winter. D. spectabilis tends to go dormant in midsummer. It is unlikely that division will become necessary, but if it does, divide in spring. Zones 3-9.

DIGITALIS : Foxglove
PLANTING: Plant 12 to 15 inches apart in a moist, well-drained soil in partial shade in the South, sun or light shade in the North. Foliage is toxic. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought : a summer mulch will help maintain the desired moist conditions. A winter mulch of straw or similar material, applied after the ground freezes, is also beneficial. Digitalis purpurea is a biennial that reseeds freely. Zones 4-9.

DRYOPTERIS : See Ferns

ECHINACEA purpurea : Coneflower
PLANTING: Set plants 18 to 24 inches apart, in a sunny or lightly shaded location with a rich, well-drained, organic-enriched soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants moist but not overly wet until established. Flowering period may be extended by deadheading (removing faded blooms). Divide every 3 years. Remove chance seedlings, as they will not come true to color. Zones 3-9.

ECHINOPS species : Globe Thistle
PLANTING: Exceptionally easy to grow in any soil, as long as it is given full sun. Space 18 to 24 inches apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Virtually maintenance free. Deadheading recommended after flowering. Zones 3-8

EUCOMIS species
PLANTING: Outdoors. Plant one foot apart in full sun or light shade in loose, moisture retentive but well drained soil. Set the rootball an inch or so below the soil line (bulbs should be 5 to 6 inches deep). Containers: Set bulbs with the tip just below the soil surface in a good brand of packaged potting soil. Plant one bulb in a 4 to 5 inch container. Provide full sun to light shade. Water moderately til growth begins, then keep the soil evenly moist during the summer. 
MAINTENANCE: Outdoors: Water regularly during hot, dry periods. Apply a light sprinkling of 5-10-5 fertilzier in early spring as new growth begins. A winter mulch of straw, needles, or chopped leaes in zones 6 and 7 will give extra protection. In colder climates where bulbs are not winter hardy, dig and store loose bulbs in a paper bag or box in a frost free area. Containers: Apply a water soluble fertilzer according to label directions during the summer months. During winter, stop watering and allow the soil to dry completely. In colder climates, move containers indoors to a frost free area in late fall and allow them to dry. Repot each spring into fresh potting soil. Zones 6-9.

EUONYMOUS species and cultivars. 
PLANTING: Space plants to allow for ultimate growth. Euyonymous is easily grown in a variety of soils. Full sun is ideal, and encourages fall color, but plants will also tolerate part shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought, summer mulch will help plants conserve moisture. Bush forms may be pruned at any time to remove weak or damaged branches and maintain desired form. Zones various.

EUPATORIUM
PLANTING: Set out plants upon arrival, spacing 2 feet apart. Eupatorium is not fussy as to soil type, but performs best in a consistently damp location. Plant in full sun in the northern zones; light or partial shade will be tolerated in the south. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep well-watered, especially during periods of drought. Bear in mind that Eupatorium starts growing late in the spring; be patient. Divide in spring, as needed; little other care is necessary. Zones 3-8

EUPHORBIA species : Spurge
PLANTING: Space plants 15 to 18 inches apart to allow for ultimate growth. Any moderately fertile soil, even one on the sandy side, will do, as long as drainage is good. Choose a location in full sun or part shade in hot climates. 
MAINTENANCE: Virtually care free and drought tolerant; once established it will require only light watering during extended dry spells. No division is necessary. We recommend a light winter mulch in zones 4 and 5. If growth becomes loose by mid summer, cut the whole plant back hard and it will regrow in a tight mound. Zones 4-10.

FERNS
PLANTING: Space plants according to the ultimate size of species you've chosen. Most hardy ferns prefer a shady or partly shaded location protected from the sun and hot, dry winds. Soil should be light or loose and highly organic. Take care not to plant crowns too deep : set them at or just below soil level. Mulch at planting time, and make sure plants have ample water during the spring and early summer, particularly during the first few years, when plants are establishing themselves. 
MAINTENANCE: We recommend that no fertilizer be used on hardy ferns; mulching will provide enough organic matter. It's best not to disturb the duff (the layer of decaying vegetation that covers the soil around the plant). Overhead spraying from time to time is beneficial. Divide as necessary by separating the rhizomes : this should be done before new growth begins in the spring or, preferably, as plants go dormant in the fall. Zones various.

FESTUCA : See Grasses, Ornamental

FICUS carica : Fig
PLANTING: Set 10 to 15 feet apart, preferably in well-drained soil of low to moderate fertility. Requires full sun. In northern zones, we recommend a southern exposure. For container culture, plant in a large tub or container, in well-drained soil, enriched with organic matter. Set outdoors after danger of frost is past, first hardening off in partial shade, then moving to a location in full sun. 
MAINTENANCE: During the growing season, water well during periods of drought, and mulch with hay, compost or straw to preserve moisture and discourage weeds. To develop a tree form, train 3 or 4 branches 2 to 3 feet off the ground. Prune in spring while dormant, remove dead wood and thin to keep the top open and grow within bounds. At the northern limit of its hardiness, add a winter mulch mounded two feet above the base of the plant. For container culture, bring indoors after a few fall frosts and store in a cool, dark cellar; water about once a month to keep soil barely moist. Prune lightly each spring to keep plants within bounds and repot every 2 to 3 years as needed. Zones 7-10

GAILLARDIA grandiflora : Blanketflower
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 15 inches apart. Choose a full sun location where the soil is of a light to medium character. A rich but light, well-drained soil is essential; gaillardias are not likely to survive the winter in heavy clay soils. 
MAINTENANCE: Do not overwater. Periodic deadheading will encourage a lush blooming season and also prevent the occurrence of seedlings which are not true to type. Divide as needed to prevent overcrowding, every 2 to 3 years; and do so in the spring. Zones 3-9.

GAULTHERIA procumbens : Creeping Wintergreen or Checkerberry
PLANTING: Set 1 to 2 feet apart, in partial shade, in moist, acid soil. We recommend a sandy, well-drained soil enriched with generous amounts of compost, leaf-mold or peat moss. 
MAINTENANCE: Water regularly and deeply : Gaultheria needs moisture above all else, especially during periods of drought. A year-round organic mulch of compost or leaf mold is recommended to preserve moisture and help provide a cool root-run. Once established, plants resent transplanting. Zones 3 (cooler portions)-7.

GAURA lindheimeri
PLANTING: Pick a sunny, hot, dry location and set plants 6 to 8 inches apart. Good drainage is important. 
MAINTENANCE: After the first flowering, cut plant back to 1 foot to facilitate later blooms. It self sows readily, helping to increase the size of the display, but does not become a problem with unwanted seedlings. Too rich a soil will induce the plant to produce weaker stems. Should not require dividing : to move dig deeply and avoid damaging the long tap root. Zones 4-8.

GERANIUM : Crane's Bill
PLANTING: Set out plants 12 to 15 inches apart in a sunny situation and in virtually any light, well-drained soil. Once established, geraniums will tolerate periods of drought, but perform optimally in moisture-retentive soils; we recommend a summer mulch, especially during the spring flush of growth and where summers are quite warm. Some species will tolerate light or partial shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Geraniums will take about two years to become fully established. Once they've done so, they'll quickly grow and colonize. An annual top-dressing with a balanced fertilizer or compost is beneficial and will improve flower production. Divide as it becomes necessary. Zones 3-8.

GEUM species and cultivars. 
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart in moist, rich and well drained soil. Plant in full morning sun or light shade. Coarse sand and humus can be used to lighten heavy, clay soils. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist and apply a balanced fertilizer in early spring and once a month during the growing season. Provide a winter mulch particularly in northern areas. Divide every 2-3 years to prevent overcrowding. Zones 5-9

GRASSES, ORNAMENTAL
PLANTING: Most should be planted in a sunny location, spacing appropriate to the ultimate height and spread of the species. Grasses are widely tolerant of soils, many will thrive in wet soils and are excellent by the water's edge, and many will tolerate poor, dry soils. 
MAINTENANCE: While grasses may require two to three seasons to become fully established, they are of the easiest, most trouble-free culture. They will withstand drought once established, and are virtually untouched by insects and diseases. The only pruning needed is to annually cut back to ground level in late winter or very, very early spring. Winter mulch is recommended. Once established, clumps may require dividing from time to time. To dry seeds, cut before seed ripens, and hang upside-down in a dark place.

HAKONECHLOA : See Grasses

HELLEBORUS species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart, in a rather fertile soil that is well-drained but moisture retentive. Helleborus does best in partial shade, but can tolerate full sun in northern areas. For the taller species and cultivars, choose a somewhat sheltered location. 
MAINTENANCE: We recommend a year-round mulch, to conserve moisture and keep the soil cool. If plants must be divided, do so carefully, as they tend to be brittle. H. orientalis hybrids transplant readily; others are happier left undisturbed.

HELIOPSIS helianthoides- Sunflower Heliopsis
PLANTING: Set plants 3 feet apart in full sun and a moist but well drained soil that contains ample organic matter. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well watered, cultivated and feed every other month with a balanced fertilzier. These plants spread by underground roots and should be dug and divided every three to four years. Zones 3-9.

HEMEROCALLIS cultivars : Daylily
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart. Choose a sunny or lightly shaded location (many varieties, including the pastels, prefer partial shade as they tend to fade in direct sun), and in soil that is well-drained and moisture-retentive, but not likely to become waterlogged. Dig a hole 1 foot around and deep. Mix the soil with compost, aged manure or leaf mold. Replace a portion of this mixture back in the hole, and set the plant on top of it, arranging the roots down around it, so that the crown is barely covered. Fill the balance of the hole, firm down the soil, and water well. 
MAINTENANCE: Water well during periods of drought; we also recommend a summer mulch to conserve moisture. Annual applications of a fertilizer high in phosphates or cottonseed meal are also recommended. Flower stems can be cut after blooming. Divide every 3 to years. Zones 4-9.

HEUCHERA species : Coral Bells or Alum root
PLANTING: Space plants 12 inches apart. Choose a sunny or lightly shaded, sheltered location where the soil is rich and well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Apply protective winter mulch once the ground has frozen. Plants may, if necessary, be divided every 3 to 4 years. Zones 3-9.

x HEUCHERELLA
PLANTING: Plant in well-drained but moisture-retentive soil of high organic content, spacing 18 inches apart. While it will tolerate sun, in the North, it is best in partial shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Remove spent flower spikes to prolong bloom. A 2 to 3-inch mulch is beneficial. Water during periods of drought. Divide, as needed, in spring, (fall in the South.) Zones 3-8.

HIBISCUS moscheutos
PLANTING: Set plants in a loose, moisture-retentive soil enriched with generous amounts of well-decomposed organic matter. Full sun to light shade is required. Space 3 feet apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Mulch is recommended to preserve summer moisture; do not allow plants to dry out during the growing season. Cut back hardened brown stalks to the ground in the fall, or in early spring, before growth starts. Toward the northern limit of their range, a winter mulch of pine straw or salt hay is recommended. Zones 5-10.

HIBISCUS syriacus
PLANTING: Space plants 6 to 10 feet apart in a sunny location, with well-drained soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Since they flower on new growth each year, plants can be pruned each spring to any desired height. For grafted standard form, remove any shoots that sprout along the trunk during the growing season. Prune the stems that form the standard in early spring before new growth begins to the desired size and shape. Zones 5-9.

HOSTA : Shade Lily
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 30 inches apart, depending on the ultimate size of the cultivar or species. (Set very dwarf kinds 9 to 12 inches apart.) Hostas are among the best of plants for shaded situations, but some also succeed in full sun, as they become larger and more mature. The hotter the summers, the more shade will be necessary to prevent scorching the foliage. A high shade canopy providing dappled light is ideal. Those with blue foliage are outstanding in the shade, while the yellow/gold types will effectively light up dark areas, but prosper, too, in considerable sun. Individual cultivars of green-gold or variegated patterns vary appreciably in the amount of sun they can tolerate. While widely tolerant of soils, hostas do best in a well-drained soil that still affords ample moisture : the sunnier the location, the moister the soil should be. Incorporate generous amounts of humus in the soil, particularly those on the limy or alkaline side. 
MAINTENANCE: A winter mulch is extremely important the first winter, to prevent heaving of unestablished plants as a result of alternating freezes and thaws. Once established, hostas can be left undisturbed for many years, but as landscaping needs dictate, can be moved at almost any time during the year, except midsummer. Zones 3-9.

HYPERICUM species :St John's Wort
PLANTING: Plant H. calycinum 18 inches apart in a light loam soil, preferably in full sun, though it is tolerant of hot, dry soils and light shade. Soil should be enriched with organic matter. H.x Moseranum ''Tricolor'' prefers sun in the north but partial shade in the south. Space 12 to 15 inches apart in average, well drained garden soil. 
MAINTENANCE: South of zone 5, cut old weak shoots back to the ground in the spring and prune remaining shoots back to 10-12 inches. Zone 5 and north,prune back to ground level in early spring. Does not perform optimally where temperatures drop below :5F. Mulch with leaf mold every other year. Zones various.

IBERIS sempervirens - Candytuft
PLANTING: Set plants out in the spring, spacing 8-12 inches apart. Choose a location in sun or light shade;a variety of soils will do, so long as they are well drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during extended periods of drought. Dead-head by shearing as blooms begin to fade to extend blooming period. Shear foliage as well to maintain desired shape, compactness and appearance. Zones 4- 8.

IRIS Cristata
PLANTING: Space plants 4 to 6 inches apart in moist, acidic, organic soil in partial to full shade. Plant so the rhizome is barely coved. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of dry weather. Zones 3-9.

IRIS Louisiana Hybrids
PLANTING: Set plants 2 feet apart. Choose a location in full sun or, father south, in light shade. The soil should be moderately water-retentive to damp, with extra organic matter added. Cover the rhizomes with 2 to 3 inches of soil. An acidic soil of pH 6.5 or lower is a must. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well watered during periods of drought. A balanced fertilizer, applied twice a year as new growth commences and two months prior to bloom, is recommended, as is a year-round mulch, particularly in the colder regions. Zones 4-9.

IRIS psuedocarus and virginica
PLANTING: Native to wet places such as the edges of ponds and streams these Iris can also be grown in drier areas provided they receive ample moisture. Cover rhizomes with one to two inches of soil and space plants 2 feet apart in full sun or light shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants welll watered during periods of drought and remove seed pods to prevent re-seeding. Zones 4-9.

IRIS sibirica : Siberian Iris
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart in full sun or light, dappled shade, choosing a moisture-retentive, slightly acid soil high in humus. Firm soil down thoroughly around the roots and water in well. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well-watered for the first few weeks after planting. When centers of the clump begin to die out and flower production goes down, clumps should be divided. This may occur every 6 to 8 years. When flowers have finished blooming, cut off bloom stalks. Remove dead foliage in fall. Zones 3-9.

IRIS tectorum : Japanese Roof Iris
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart. Planting three or more in a roughly triangular group will give good concentrated color. I. tectorum is noted for its tolerance of a wide range of soil conditions, is drought resistant and will succeed in sun or partial shade. It will, however multiply fastest in rich, well-mulched, well-drained soils. Plant so rhizome is just barely covered, and firm the soil thoroughly around the feeder roots. Water in well. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep well-watered for the first few weeks after planting. If grown in good, well-prepared soil they need little fertilizer. In hot climates, a light mulch helps retain moisture, keeps soil cool and prevents frost heaving in winter. Remove dead foliage in fall. Zones 4-9.

JUNCUS effusus 'Spiralis' - Corkscrew Rush
PLANTING: Plant in moist, even wet soils. Can be planted at the edge of a pond or water garden. Tolerates light shade but does best in full sun. 
MAINTENANCE: Requires consistently moist soil, do not let dry out. Spreads slowly by rhizomes and can be divided in the spring. Stems can be cut for floral arrangements. Zones 4-9.

LAMIUM species and cultivars- Dead Nettle
PLANTING: Set 8-12 inches apart in shade or partial shade. While lamium will attain optimum growth in areas of even moisture, it will grow satisfactorily even in dry shade, where few other plants will succeed. A summer mulch, applied after planting, will facilitate strong, early growth. This mulch is not necessary for established plants. For container or hanging basket culture: Fill the container to about 2 inches of the rim with weed-free potting soil or growing medium. For quick coverage, plant about 6 inches apart or use 3 plants for a ten inch basket. Grow as you would in the garden but bear in mind that plants in a container or basket tend to dy out more quickly and will need more frequent watering. 
MAINTENANCE: Once established, lamium requires little care, and can easily be increased by planting any of the numerous runners that will form. Can easily be cut back to restain unwanted growth. Zones 4-8.

LAVANDULA : Lavender
PLANTING: Set plants in a dry, warm soil, spaced 12 to 18 inches apart, depending on the ultimate spread of the species you've chosen. Ample humus content and rather low fertility are best; choose a soil with excellent drainage as well. 
MAINTENANCE: Clip or prune in spring, before the new growth starts, to promote bushiness and maintain desired height and form. Trim off flower stems after bloom in late summer. This is also a good time to trim back the foliage again, if desired, to develop a more compact bush. Zones 5-9.

Leucanthemum : See Chrysanthemum maximum

LIATRIS species and cultivars : Gayfeather, Blazing Star, Button Snakeroot
PLANTING: Set plants in sun, spacing 18 to 24 inches apart; for best effect, plant in masses. Light, well-drained but moisture retentive soil of moderate fertility is preferred. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist during flowering period. Stake taller plants as needed. Remove faded flower spikes to encourage a second flowering. Zones 3-10.

LILIUM species and hybrids : Lily
PLANTING: Set out bulbs to a depth of 6 inches or more : the rule of thumb is to plant to a depth of 3 times their height. (An exception is L. candidum, which is planted in late summer/early fall, 2 inches deep.) Lilies require excellent drainage. Choose a light, porous, sandy soil, enriched with well-decomposed compost or humus. The ideal situation is one where the plants will receive full sun at the tops but shade at soil level to keep the ground moist; to this end, surround bulbs with a low-growing ground cover or companion plants. Plant 6 to 8 inches apart. 
MAINTENANCE: Remove spent flowers before seed can be set. When cutting for indoor displays, take care not to remove more than half the length of the stems, as this will weaken the plant and discourage future flowering. Fertilize lightly every year either after flowering or when growth appears in the spring. Trumpets and Orientals Zones 4-8; Asiatics Zones 3-8.

LIRIOPE muscari : Lily Turf
PLANTING: Set out plants in spring or fall, spacing 8 to 12 inches apart. Choose a location in sun or light shade, bearing in mind that farther south, plants will be happier with more shade. Any good well-drained soil is fine. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist, particularly when plants are situated in full sun; a moisture-conserving summer mulch is helpful to this end. To maintain plants' health and beauty, cut back old foliage in the spring before new growth emerges. Zones 6-9.

LOBELIA species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches or so apart. Choose a location in shade or partial shade; the soil should be moisture-retentive and high in organic content. We recommend enhancing the soil before planting with decayed manure or compost. Lobelias show to best effect when planted in large colonies. 
MAINTENANCE: Once established, lobelias will prosper and naturalize. Deadheading will encourage lateral blooming. A moisture-conserving summer mulch is valuable, as is a protective mulch in winter. Zones various.

LUPINUS polyphyllus : Lupine
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart. Choose a location in full sun or, especially where the summers are very hot, light shade, and where the soil is well-drained but not too fertile. Lupines are best when planted in groups. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. In the southern-most zones, we recommend summer mulch. Remove spent flowers before they set seed. Cutting back flowering stems after blooming will also encourage a second bloom. Zones 4-7.

MAZUS reptans and radicans
PLANTING: Set out in spring, 12 inches apart, in a moist but well-drained soil rich in organic matter. Mazus reptans prefer light shade, while Mazus radicans bloom best with a half day of sun. Withstands even heavy foot-traffic. 
MAINTENANCE: Mazus should be watered during periods of extended hot, dry weather. Little or no additional attention is required. Mazus radicans: Zones 7-10; Mazus reptans: Zones 5-9.

MISCANTHUS : See Grasses, Ornamental

MONARDA : Bergamot, Beebalm, Oswego Tea
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart. Though monarda will tolerate any soil, best results will be obtained in a moisture-retentive, highly organic soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Removing faded flowers will prolong the blooming period. Divide every 3 to 4 years as necessary, discarding the central portion and replanting the vigorous outer segments of the clump. If mildew becomes a problem, regular spraying is advised. Plants may be cut to the ground after blooming for appearances' sake. Zones 4-9.

MUHLENBERGIA : See Grasses, ornamental

NEPETA species- Catmint
PLANTING: Set plants 12-15 inches apart in full sun, preferably in well drained soil of low fertility. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moderately moist, but not soggy, while plants establish themselves. Cut faded flowers to encourage second bloom. We recommend a winter mulch. Divide every 2 to 3 years to rejuvenate. Zones 3-9

OPHIOPOGON species and cultivars : Mondo Grass, LilyTurf PLANTING: Set plants 6 to 8 inches apart. Sunny locations can be considered in northern zones; at minimum, select partial shade locations in the southern zones. Though drought-resistant, the Lily Turf is happiest in a moist soil, summer mulch helps.
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Divide in spring if plants become overcrowded, or to increase stock for additional plantings. Zones various.

Osmunda : See Ferns, Hardy

PACHYSANDRA terminalis cultivars : Japanese Spurge
PLANTING: Space 6-10 inches apart. Grow in soils with a pH range of 5.0 to 7.0. Plant in a moist, well-drained soil in semi-shade or shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Never allow soil to get excessively dry; otherwise, they require very little maintenance. Zones 4-9.

PAEONIA species and cultivars - Peony
PLANTING: Space plants 3 ft apart in full sun or light shade, the latter being preferable in southern zones. The ideal soil is rich and moisture retentive, but well drained. Dig a hole 2 feet square and deep, mixing the soil with liberal amounts of humus or well-decomposed compost, along with some bonemeal. Set the root clumps in the hole so that the ''eyes'' or growing points are covered with no more than 1-2 inches of soil. Do not plant too deeply or your peony will not prosper. Firm the soil around the plant after planting and water well. 
MAINTENANCE: It is vital that these plants be kept well watered during their growing season. As peonies are heavy feeders, fertilize each spring with a high phosphorous fertilizer after growth has started. When cutting, remove as little foliage as possible, since the leaves are necessary for plant growth and vigor. Remove spent flowers and, in the fall, cut back dead foliage. Established plants prefer not to be moved. In situations exposed to heavy winds, staking or a plant support hoop may be necessary. Zones 3 through cooler portions of 8.

Panicum : See Grasses, Ornamental

PAPAVER oriental cultivars : Oriental Poppy
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart, and in full sun. Plants root deeply, so cultivate the soil accordingly; well-drained, good garden soil is best. We recommend winter mulch for at least the first year. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Seed pods should be removed after the flowers are spent, and foliage should be cut back as it turns brown in midsummer. In planting, remember that the Oriental poppy dies back in midsummer and their foliage will reemerge in the late summer. A companion plant such as Gypsophila can fill the gap. Plants dislike being disturbed after planting. Zones 3-8.

x PARDANCANDA-Candy Lily
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart. Choose a sunny location where the soil is well drained and on the light side. Plants will also tolerate light shade but bloom will not be as profuse. Cover the crowns with an inch of soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Plants may be divided as they become overcrowded. Remove flower stems once blooms have finished. In cooler regions where snow cover is not dependable, we recommend a winter mulch. Zones 5-10.

Penisetum : See Grasses

PENSTEMON virgatus-Beard Tongue
PLANTING: Space 14-16 inches apart in slightly acidic, well drained soil in sun or light shade. Soils that are well drained in winter are particularly important. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Remove flower stalks after plants finish blooming. Zones 4-8

PEROVSKIA atriplicifolia : Russian or Azure Sage
PLANTING: Set plants 2 to 3 feet apart in full sun. A well-drained soil is essential. 
MAINTENANCE: Do not allow soil to dry out while plants are establishing themselves. In the North, prune in early spring, cutting back old stems to 12 to 18 inches, and, at the same time, thinning out any overcrowded shoots. In the South, little or no pruning is needed. Zones 5-9.

PHLOX paniculata 
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 15 inches apart to allow for good air circulation. Choose a location in full sun or very light shade, and where the soil is moisture-retentive but well-drained, deeply worked and enriched with organic material; paniculata are heavy feeders.
MAINTENANCE: Water plants during periods of drought; summer mulch helps conserve moisture. To promote vigorous growth, pinch out weaker shoots periodically during the growing season. When dividing (every three+ years), discard weaker shoots before replanting. At the end of each season, cut plants back to the ground, removing and discarding dead foliage. To naturally control mildew, avoid overhead watering and planting against moisture-retaining hedges, fences or walls.

PHLOX maculata
PLANTING: Set out plants, 18 inches apart, in sun or light shade. Soil should be moisture retentive but well drained, deeply worked and enriched with organic matter; this is a heavy feeder.
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought and use a summer mulch to conserve moisture. Cutting back (deadheading) faded blooms will encourage a new crop of flowers later in the season.

PHLOX divaricata
PLANTING: Space plants 12 to 15 inches apart in full sun to partial shade. In warmer climates, provide more shade. Performs best in an average garden soil that is well-drained, and contains extra organic matter. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during periods of drought. Mulch with straw, pine needles, shredded bark, or chopped leaves to conserve moisture. Remove spent flowers after bloom.

PHLOX subulata
PLANTING: Set out plants 6 to 8 inches apart in full sun, preferably in a rather dry, well-drained soil of low fertility. While tolerant of a wide pH range, P. subulata prefers a neutral or slightly alkaline soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Shear back after flowering will stimulate new growth.

PLUMBAGO-Leadwort
PLANTING: Plant in full sun and well drained soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Water during dry periods and apply a balanced fertilzier monthly. Prune in early spring as needed. Zones various.

POLEMONIUM species-Jacob's Ladder
PLANTING: Space plants 18 inches apart in a moisture retentive soil that is high in organic matter. Polemonium caeruleum performs well in full sun in the North but requires partial shade in warmer Southern areas. Polemonium reptans prefers partial shade in all areas. 
MAINTENANCE: Water regularly during dry periods. A mulch of pine needles, straw, shredded bark or chopped leaves will conserve soil moisture. Divide plants every 3 to 4 years as needed. Zones 3-7.

POLYGONUM aubertii : Silverlace or Fleece Vine
PLANTING: Plant in a sunny location, setting plants 10 feet apart if more than one is used. A well-drained soil, preferably of rather sandy texture. 
MAINTENANCE: Prune very early in the spring before new growth starts, cutting back some branches and thinning shoots, removing dead and weak wood. Pinching back tips during growing season will promote denser growth. Zones 4-9.

POLYSTICHUM : See Ferns

PRIMULA cultivars-Primrose
PLANTING: Set plants 8 10 12 inches apart in filtered shade in a rich,highly organic soil. Primroses thrive best in a cool environment and sheltered against wind. They do poorly where summers are hot. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist, watering during periods of drought. A mulch will help conserve moisture during the growing season and will discourage heaving during winter. Divide in early fall every 3 to 4 years to rejuvenate, when necessary. P. sieboldii usually goes dormant in the summer, so be sure not to disturb them while they are dormant. Zones-various.

PULMONARIA : Lungwort
PLANTING: Set plants 12 inches apart in moderately rich, moist but well drained soil. Plant in partial to full shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Provide supplemental water during drought periods. An application of an organic mulch is benefical and apply a complete fertilzier in early spring. Remove faded flowers to prevent unwanted seedlings. Divide every 4 to 5 years to prevent overcrowding. Zones 4-11.

ROSMARINUS officinalis : Rosemary
PLANTING: Set plants 18 inches apart in full sun. Light, well-drained soil is essential. 
MAINTENANCE: Do not let soil dry out when plants are establishing themselves outside; once established they are quite drought tolerant. Prune as necessary after flowering to enhance appearance and encourage bushy growth. May be potted and brought in for the winter in the North; otherwise provide a winter mulch. Zone 7-10. INDOOR CULTURE: Select a sunny window, preferably a southern exposure. Be sure that it is not exposed to drafts, and that a heat vent does not blow directly on it. Allow the soil surface to dry between waterings; do not mist the foliage. Fertilize from spring until fall with a houseplant fertilizer, according to instructions. Replant into the next larger size pot after about six months. During frost-free months, it may be taken outside to bright areas that receive indirect sunlight.

RUDBECKIA species : Coneflower
PLANTING: Set plants 15-18 inches apart. Choose a site in sun, nearly any soil will do, so long as it is well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Water plants during periods of drought. (If your summers tend to be hot and dry, a summer mulch will help conserve moisture.) Attention to deadheading will encourage the longest possible blooming season, and also prevent inferior seedlings. Cut back to the ground after blooms end, and apply a winter mulch after the ground freezes. Divide in spring or fall every 3 to 5 years, as needed to rejuvenate. Zones Various.

SAGINA subulata : Pearlwort
PLANTING: Set 6 to 8 inches apart. Choose a location in part shade, where the soil is moist, rich and well-drained. It can also be grown in full sun (except in the south) as long as adequate moisture is supplied. Only spreads 2 to 3 inches each year. 
MAINTENANCE: Take care not to overwater these plants. If watering is necessary, do so early in the day so that foliage does not remain wet overnight. Never allow the soil to get too dry. Plants are easily divided in spring or fall, if desired. Zones 4 (with protection)-7.

SALVIA species and cultivars : Meadow Sage, Clary
PLANTING: Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart, in a sunny location where the soil is good and well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Heat and drought tolerant once established, Salvia is relatively problem-free. Cut back vigorous growth in early summer to assure bushiness; and cut back blooms when spent to encourage a second bloom. Divide plants every 3 to 4 years, if necessary. Winter mulch is beneficial. Zones 4-9.

SCABIOSA : Pincushion Flower
PLANTING: Set out plants 12 inches apart. Choose a sunny location where the soil is light and well-drained. If the pH is low, add lime to the soil. 
MAINTENANCE: We recommend an airy winter mulch. Divide every few years as necessary to rejuvenate. Zones 3-9.

SCHIZACHYRIUM scoparium
PLANTING: Plant in full sun and fairly fertile but well drained soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Remove old stems in winter. Divide plants in early spring. Zones 5-9

SEDUM species and cultivars
Upright types Stonecrop

PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart. Any soil well-drained will do, even poor, gravelly infertile soil, but, of course, good fertile garden soil is best. The location should be in full sun or very light shade. 
MAINTENANCE: Water plants in periods of drought. Otherwise, Sedum requires little in the way of special care. If plants become crowded after 4 or 5 years, they may be divided in the spring. Dried flower heads may be left through the winter to give interest in the garden along with the grasses. Zones various.

SISYRINCHIUM angustifolium : Blue Eyed Grass
PLANTING: Set plants 6 to 10 inches apart in a sunny location in a moderately fertile, moist but well-drained soil. 
MAINTENANCE: Trouble-free, it can be easily divided after 4 or 5 years if desirable. Most varieties will self-sow; therefore, seed heads should be removed if you don't want it to spread. Zones 3-8.

TANACETUM
PLANTING: Plant 24-30 inches part in full sun to light shade. Well drained soil is a must. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist while plants are becoming established. Little or no fertilization is needed. A winter mulch will protect against heaving. Zones 3-7.

THALICTRUM rochebrunianum : Meadow Rue
PLANTING: Set plants of taller species 18-24 inches apart in partial shade in a site sheltered from heavy winds. A moist soil, high in organic matter but with good drainage, is best. 
MAINTENANCE: Water liberally throughout the summer; a mulch will help conserve moisture. Zones 5-8.

THYMUS species and cultivars : Thyme
PLANTING: Set out 8 to 12 inches apart in full sun, preferably in a well-drained soil of low fertility. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist but not soggy until plants establish themselves. A winter mulch is recommended. Some species often require cutting back in spring to keep them compact and bushy. Zones 3-9.

TIARELLA wherryi : Foam Flower
PLANTING: Set plants 10 to 12 inches apart. Choose a shady or partly shady location, and a soil that is slightly acid, moisture-retentive and has been enriched with organic matter. 
MAINTENANCE: Make certain that plants are kept well-watered during any dry spell. Foliage is evergreen in the south and old leaves should be trimmed back in early spring. Year round mulch is recommended. Zones 3-8.

TRADESCANTIA : Spiderwort
PLANTING: Set plants 12 : 15 inches apart in moist, but well drained soil in partial shade to full sun. 
MAINTENANCE: Keep soil moist during periods of drought. Cut back dried foliage after flowering to encourage new shoots and flowers. Divide every 3-4 years in spring. Zones 5-9

TRICYRTIS species and cultivars : Japanese Toad Lily
PLANTING: Set plants 1 to 21/2 feet apart, depending on type. Choose a location in partial or high shade, where the soil remains moist. Adding organic matter to light soils will help hold moisture. 
MAINTENANCE: Make sure plants are kept watered during dry spells. To establish new colonies, transplant in fall after flowering, or in spring (the latter is preferable farther north). Slugs may become a problem to tricyrtis; if so, apply a slug bait in the spring. A winter mulch, applied after the ground freezes and removed the following spring, is recommended in northern zones. Zones various.

VERBASCUM chaixii : Mullien
PLANTING: Set plants 15 to 18 inches apart. Choose a location in full sun, where the soil is well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Water plants from time to time during prolonged periods of drought. Established plants do not like to be moved. In zones 5, we recommend a winter mulch. Zones 5-9.

VERBENA species and cultivars : Vervain
PLANTING: Choose a sunny location, where soil is well-drained. Zones 6-9. 
MAINTENANCE: Water plants during extended periods of drought. If necessary, plants may be divided in spring. In areas north of hardiness zones, dig up plants in the fall and winter over in a frost-free cold frame. Zones various.

VERONICA species and cultivars : Speedwell
PLANTING: Set 15 to 18 inches apart. Choose a location in full sun or light shade, where the soil is moderately fertile and : this is essential; well-drained. 
MAINTENANCE: Removing spent flower heads will prolong blooming period. Apply a balanced fertilizer in the spring, as growth commences. Plants may need dividing every 3 or 4 years, for renewal; do this in the spring or fall. Zones 4-9.

VIBURNUM species and cultivars
PLANTING: Choose a sunny location (some may tolerate light shade : see catalog for specifics of your species), where the soil is well-drained but deep, rich and moisture- retentive. The viburnums we offer are tolerant of drought and sea-spray. 
MAINTENANCE: Among the easiest of all shrubs to grow, the Viburnum needs little special attention; prune only as desired to shape. Please note, however, that they are highly intolerant of sulphur. Should a spray containing sulphur touch the foliage, severe defoliation may result.

VINCA species and cultivars : Periwinkle, Trailing Myrtle
PLANTING: Space 6 to 12 inches apart. Choose a site in partial shade, though the Vincas will tolerate deeper shade; average garden soil will do.
MAINTENANCE: Keep plants well watered during periods of drought. A balanced fertilizer applied in the spring will encourage optimum growth. Zones 4-9.

VIOLA - Species and cultivars
PLANTING: Set plants 6 inches apart in a sheltered location in sun or part shade (especially in areas with hot summers) where the soil is rich and has ample moisture content. Avoid planting too deeply. 
MAINTENANCE: Picking spent flowers will prolong the blooming season. If slugs are a problem, initiate control methods early in the spring. Otherwise, no special care is needed. Zones various.

YUCCA species : Adam's Needle
PLANTING: Plant 3 feet or more apart, in full sun and a well-drained soil, preferably in dry sandy loam. 
MAINTENANCE: A deep rooter, Yucca, once established, should not be moved. For cosmetic purposes, trim any dried leaves that do not fall off by themselves. Otherwise, little maintenance is required. Zones 4-10.

If you are not sure what kind of soil is in your garden, begin with a test from your local Co-operative Extension Service (http://www.csrees.usda.gov/Extension/ )

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